Osseointegration of Cylindrical Zirconia–Alumina Functionally Graded materials, Dental implant by Electrophoretic Deposition
Copyright (c) 2020 Awham Salman, Nada Al-Ghaban, Mohammed Eesa, Alaa Atiyah, Saad Farid
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique is used to prepare zirconia–alumina composite layers based on the principle of functionally graded materials (FGM). The FGM were prepared with five layers. The outer layer was composed of pure α-alumina to promote biocompatibility while the inner layer was stabilised zirconia (3Y-TZP), to benefit from its tough properties. The intermediate layers were stepwise graded layers. The stability of the EPD suspensions was the main challenge during the preparation steps. Due to availability and low cost, alcoholic solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and toluene were used to control conductivity, dielectric constant and the viscosity of the suspension. The appropriately applied potential, (ζ), for the deposition of each layer, was achieved via gradation of the applied voltage, which was to optimise the packing of each layer and avoid cracking after sintering at 1500 °C. The cylindrical-shaped green specimens were obtained via deposition on graphite electrodes. A small amount of acetic acid was added during the deposition of the final outer alumina layer to introduce porosity, via the bubbling of acetic acid, to encourage osseointegration. The sintered specimens were implanted in rabbit tibial bone. In vivo histological tests showed the successful osseointegration of the implants to the rabbit bone.